For mechanical disk brakes, two very common models are the Avid BB7 and the TRP Spyre. The BB7 is a single piston whereas the Spyre has dual pistons.
With hydraulic disk brakes:
XTR M9100 series: 4 piston caliper
XTR M9100 series: 2 piston caliper
BR-M9020 https://bike.shimano.com/en-EU/components/mtb/category/brake.html (there are different quality levels: XT, XTR, Deore XT, SLX (pretty cheap)
With rim breaks, there are two types: cantilever and caliper. For each of the subtypes, Shimano makes various levels of brake.
Avid BB7 SL