Three types of brake:
1. Cable Disk:
Usually referred to as "mechanical", as opposed to hydraulic. These are easier to repair in the field
2. Hydraulic Disk
These are smoother and a bit more powerful. But tricky if you remove wheels, and harder to fix for the home mechanic.
3. Rim Brakes
Rim brakes are not as good in the rain. Rim brakes are still found on high end road bikes because they can be slightly lighter. Racing bikes often don't have as much need for brakes as touring or mountain bikes. There are three subtypes of rim brakes:
- CenterBolt (single bolt above wheel attaches brake)
- Linear Pull (v brake)
Most racing bikes are the classical CenterBolt type. Most hybrids are the powerful Linear Pull (V Brake). Older touring bikes like my Miyata 1000 have cantilever brakes.